Sunday, 18 November, 2018

In Indonesia have found the oldest cave paintings

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Pablo Mccormick | 10 November, 2018, 07:21

These remote limestone caves on Borneo have been known to contain prehistoric drawings since the 1990s. It predates artwork found in European caves, and it one of thousands of images found in Borneo.

The researchers analyzed several artworks found in the remote Borneo caves and were able to group them into three distinct styles based on their common attributes and age.

This creates many theories.

Liang Banteng, a cave art site in East Kalimantan.

The cave is described as something like a prehistoric art gallery; it may have been reserved for just this artwork.

At least 40,000 years ago, ancient humans made their way through the rugged landscape of Borneo, in Southeast Asia, to access a cave, hanging from a cliff and paint an animal on its roof.

Ochre and mulberry panel of hand stencils. Some hand stencils have internal decorations and are interlinked by tree-like motifs.

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In the early 2000s the French-Indonesian team dated part of a cave drapery formation that had grown over the top of a hand stencil.

The oldest figurative cave art may not belong to France or Spain, but to Borneo, researchers said Wednesday. They used uranium dating to assess the age of the painting using a calcium carbonate sample. This provides the first reliable estimates for the approximate time of rock art production.

The newly dated cave art fits in with the emerging picture of early humans.

Researchers say the image of wounded wild cattle sketched on the red and orange walls depicts a hunt that likely took place at least 40,000 years ago. This has a minimum age of 40,000 years.

Dated rock art from Lubang Jeriji Saléh.

The second phase of painting in the cave is characterised by the use of purple-coloured paint, and dates to between 16,000 and 21,000 years ago.

They removed samples smaller than one centimetre (half an inch) across from the artworks and found one painting of an animal had been produced at least 40,000 years ago, and possibly almost 52,000 years ago.

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The reddish-orange artwork, which is about 5 feet (1.5 meters) wide and dates back to at least 40,000 years ago, depicts an animal that is not readily identifiable.

In the cave have been preserved and thousands of drawings later, created about 20 thousand years ago, which depict human figures. He added that the research "killed Eurocentric views on early rock art". This coincided with the most extreme period of the ice age, though it's not clear if the two events are connected.

Perhaps life in this harsh world stimulated new forms of cultural innovation. A study last year of genetic diversity among people today indicates that populations began diverging from one another in Africa between 260,000 and 350,000 years ago.

Sulawesi is adjacent to Borneo and has never been connected to the nearby Eurasian continent.

Sulawesi lies off the edge of Eurasia and is a vital stepping-stone between Asia and Australia. The meaning they gave to their paintings "is a great mystery that we don't really know and may never solve".

In their paper the team note that this suggests rock art emerged in Borneo at about the same time as in Europe, when modern humans arrived - about 45,000 to 43,000 years ago.

"It now seems that two early cave art provinces arose at a similar time in remote corners of Palaeolithic Eurasia: one in Europe and one in Indonesia, at the opposite end of this ice age world", said Adam Brum, an archaeologist involved in the study, in a press release issued by Griffith University.

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Adhi Agus Oktaviana, a researcher in archaeology and rock art from ARKENAS, contributed to this article.

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